However, outcomes of both procedures are highly operator

dependent and a simple stratifying method to prioritize CAS, CEA or medical therapy only has not yet been proposed. In addition, recently published randomized trials highlighted the importance of proper patient selection and rigorous training contributing to low absolute rates of (procedural) adverse events. This review discusses the history and evidence for carotid revascularization and briefly presents technical aspects and innovations in CAS.”

“The emerging complexity of large macromolecules has led to challenges in their full scale theoretical S63845 description and computer simulation. Multiscale multiphysics and multidomain models have been introduced to reduce the number of degrees of freedom while maintaining modeling accuracy and achieving computational efficiency. A total energy functional is constructed to put energies for polar and nonpolar solvation, chemical potential, fluid flow, molecular mechanics, and elastic dynamics on an equal footing. The variational principle is utilized

to derive coupled governing equations for the above mentioned multiphysical descriptions. Among these governing equations is the Poisson-Boltzmann equation which describes continuum electrostatics with atomic charges. The present work introduces the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity (CEWAR). The essence of CEWAR is to formulate the shear modulus as a continuous ATM/ATR targets function of atomic rigidity. As a result, the dynamics complexity of a macromolecular system is separated from its static complexity so that the more time-consuming dynamics is handled with continuum elasticity theory, while the less time-consuming static analysis is pursued with atomic approaches. We propose a simple method, flexibility-rigidity index (FRI), find more to analyze macromolecular flexibility and rigidity in atomic detail. The construction of FRI relies on the fundamental assumption

that protein functions, such as flexibility, rigidity, and energy, are entirely determined by the structure of the protein and its environment, although the structure is in turn determined by all the interactions. As such, the FRI measures the topological connectivity of protein atoms or residues and characterizes the geometric compactness of the protein structure. As a consequence, the FRI does not resort to the interaction Hamiltonian and bypasses matrix diagonalization, which underpins most other flexibility analysis methods. FRI’s computational complexity is of O(N-2) at most, where N is the number of atoms or residues, in contrast to O(N-3) for Hamiltonian based methods. We demonstrate that the proposed FRI gives rise to accurate prediction of protein B-Factor for a set of 263 proteins. We show that a parameter free FRI is able to achieve about 95% accuracy of the parameter optimized FRI.