Question: What Is The Fuel Oil Used In Anfo?

What is ammonium nitrate fuel?

Ammonium nitrate prills provide a much more concentrated supply of oxygen than the air around us. This is why it is effective in mining explosives, where it’s mixed with oil and other fuels. At high enough temperatures, however, ammonium nitrate can violently decompose on its own.

Can an ANFO burn?

However, from a safety point of view, it must be noted that if any self-heating reaction occurs in a large quantity of ANFO (which is self-confining) the pressure and temperature can rise (faster than it can dissipate) to the point where the ANFO could burn and possibly detonate.

What type of smell does ANFO present?

A telltale sign of an ANFO bomb, for instance, are its signature residues and the lingering smell of ammonia following a blast. This helps law enforcement authorities determine the cause of the blast, but, because the odor is emitted after the blast, it does little to prevent such an attack.

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What happens when you mix diesel and ammonium nitrate?

The ammonium and nitrate molecules break down, and a large amount of oxygen gas is suddenly formed. The gas released from the decomposing fertilizer is what drives the explosion. The rapid release of oxygen, along with the energy from the detonation wave, ignites the fuel.

Can ammonium nitrate explode without fuel?

The chemical compound is a white salt and an oxidizer — it fuels fires by supplying oxygen. Without a detonator, pure ammonium nitrate does not explode, which is why it is considered safe to use as an agricultural fertilizer.

Will ammonium nitrate explode on its own?

Ammonium nitrate would only explode on its own if its temperature was rapidly raised to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Compared to most combustible materials, ammonium nitrate itself is not exceptionally explosive. But the compound can contribute to explosions because it belongs to a chemical class known as oxidizers.

What causes orange smoke in an explosion?

The orange/red coloration is caused by the presence of NO2 which is a direct product of the detonation process, and is also produced in the after burning reactions and by the secondary oxidation of NO to NO2 as the cloud mixes with air.

Is ANFO water resistant?

ANFO is not waterproof or even resistant. ANFO can deflagrate if a significant amount of water has damaged the ANFO. ANFO can fail to detonate if water has damaged enough ANFO in the hole. If the ANFO shoots “low order”, it shoots inefficiently and produces excess gases.

What does red smoke mean in an explosion?

“You need extreme circumstances to set off an explosion. If you look at the smoke that came from the blast it’s this kind of blood red colour. That’s because of the nitrogen oxide air pollutants in it.”

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What are the 3 categories of high explosives?

High explosives are divided into three main categories, Primary (or Initiating) High Explosives, Secondary High Explosives, Boosters and Secondary High Explosives, Main Charge. As with many of the terms associated with explosions, there is also other terms that describe combustion explosions, “Deflagration Explosion”.

What is C4 made of?

C4 is composed of RDX (91%), dioctyl sebacate (5.3%), polyisobutylene (2.1%), and mineral/motor oil (1.6%) [1].

What are 2 types of high explosives?

High explosives will be referred to Type E explosives, and there will be three sub-types in this group:

  • 1 – blasting and bulk explosives (explosives used for commercial blasting applications or for their manufacture);
  • 2 – perforating explosives (intended for use in the oil and gas well industry);

What triggers ammonium nitrate to explode?

Over time, the compound absorbs moisture, which can make the beads stick together into a huge rock, says Sella. When such a large quantity of compacted ammonium nitrate is exposed to intense heat — if, say, an accidental fire breaks out — it can trigger an explosion.

What happens when ammonium nitrate is mixed with water?

If you gently heat ammonium nitrate that has dissolved in water, the solution breaks down to release nitrous oxide, commonly called laughing gas. Because solid ammonium nitrate can undergo explosive decomposition when heated in a confined space, its shipment and storage are subject to government regulations.

What does ammonium nitrate decompose into?

Once a reaction is sparked, ammonium nitrate explodes violently. The explosive force occurs when solid ammonium nitrate decomposes very rapidly into two gases, nitrous oxide and water vapor.

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